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一些常见的Linux基础组件

#Linux


整理了一些常见组件的信息。记录一下,备忘。

Project Description
acl Commands for Manipulating POSIX Access Control Lists
alsa-lib The ALSA Library package contains the ALSA library used by programs (including ALSA Utilities) requiring access to the ALSA sound interface(ALSA drivers).
alsa-plugins Plugins are used to create virtual devices that can be used like normal hardware devices but cause extra processing of the sound stream to take place.
alsa-state Alsa Scenario Files - an init script and state files to restore sound state at system boot and save it at system shut down.
alsa-utils The ALSA Utilities package contains various utilities which are useful for controlling your sound card.
attr Commands for Manipulating Filesystem Extended Attributes.
avahi Avahi provides three programming APIs for integration of mDNS/DNS-SD
base-files The base-files package creates the basic system directory structure and provides a small set of key configuration files for the system.
base-passwd base system master password and group files.
bash Bash is a Unix shell and command language written by Brian Fox for the GNU Project as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell.
beecrypt BeeCrypt is an ongoing project to provide a strong and fast cryptography toolkit.
bison Bison is a general-purpose parser generator that converts an annotated context-free grammar into a deterministic LR or generalized LR (GLR) parser employing LALR(1) parser tables.
bzip2 bzip2 is a free and open-source file compression program that uses the Burrows–Wheeler algorithm. It only compresses single files and is not a file archiver.
cairo Cairo is a 2D graphics library with support for multiple output devices.
connman ConnMan is an internet connection manager for embedded devices running the Linux operating system.
connman-conf This is the ConnMan configuration to set up a Wired network interface for a qemu machine.
coreutils The coreutils is a package of GNU software containing reimplementations for many of the basic tools, such as cat, ls, and rm, used on Unix-like operating systems.
cracklib The CrackLib package contains a library used to enforce strong passwords by comparing user selected passwords to words in chosen word lists.
cryptodev-linux A /dev/crypto device driver header file
curl cRUL is a computer software project providing a library and command-line tool for transferring data using various protocols.
db Berkeley DB is a family of embedded key-value database libraries providing scalable high-performance data management services to applications.
dbus D-Bus is a simple system for interprocess communication and coordination.
dbus-glib dbus-glib is a deprecated D-Bus binding for GLib. Please use GDBus, part of GLib since 2.26.
dri2proto This package provides the wire protocol for the Direct Rendering Ifnrastructure 2. DIR is required for may hardware accelerated OpenGL drivers.
e2fsprogs e2fsprogs (sometimes called the e2fs programs) is a set of utilities for maintaining the ext2, ext3 and ext4 file systems.
expat This is Expat, a C library for parsing XML, written by James Clark.
ffmpeg FFmpeg is the leading multimedia framework, able to decode, encode, transcode, mux, demux, stream, filter and play pretty much anything that humans and machines have created.
file The command used to determine file type.
flac FLAC is an Open Source lossless audio codec developed by Josh Coalson from 2001 to 2009.
flex flex is a tool for generating scanners: programs which recognize lexical patterns in text.
fontconfig Font configuration and customization library
freetype FreeType is a freely available software library to render fonts.
gawk The GNU version of awk, a text processing utility. Awk interprets a special-purpose programming language to do quick and easy text pattern matching and reformatting jobs.
gcc-runtime The runtime libraries of gcc.
gconf GConf is a configuration database system, functionally similar to the Windows registry but lots better. :-)
gdbm GNU dbm is a set of database routines that use extendible hashing and works similar to the standard UNIX dbm routines. The library provides also an optional compatibility layer for UNIX-like dbm and ndbm calls.
gdk-pixbuf The Gdk Pixbuf package is a toolkit for image loading and pixel buffer manipulation.
gettext the GNU gettext utilities are a set of tools that provides a framework to help other GNU packages produce multi-lingual messages.
glib-2.0 GLib is the low-level core library that forms the basis for projects such as GTK+ and GNOME. It provides data structure handling for C, portability wrappers, and interfaces for such runtime functionality as an event loop, threads, dynamic loading, and an object system.
glib-networking Network-related gio-modules for glib.
glibc The GNU C Library is the standard system C library for all GNU systems, and is an important part of what makes up a GNU system. It provides the system API for all programs written in C and C-compatible languages such as C++ and Objective C; the runtime facilities of other programming languages use the C library to access the underlying operating system.
glibc-initial glibc-initial
glibc-locale Locale data from glibc
gmp GNU MP is a library for arbitrary precision arithmetic, operating on signed integers, rational numbers, and floating point numbers. It has a rich set of functions, and the functions have a regular interface.
gnu-efi Libraries for producing EFI binaries
gnutls GnuTLS implements the TLS/SSL (Transport Layer Security aka Secure Sockets Layer) protocol.
gpsd-machine-conf Machine specific gpsd config
gss the Generic Security Service Library used for programs to access security services.
gstreamer1.0 GStreamer is an extremely powerful and versatile framework for creating streaming media applications.
gstreamer1.0-plugins-bad a set of plug-ins that aren’t up to par compared to the rest. They might be close to being good quality, but they’re missing something - be it a good code review, some documentation, a set of tests, a real live maintainer, or some actual wide use.
gstreamer1.0-plugins-base a small and fixed set of plug-ins, covering a wide range of possible types of elements; these are continuously kept up-to-date with any core changes during the development series.
gstreamer1.0-plugins-good a set of plug-ins that we consider to have good quality code, correct functionality, our preferred license (LGPL for the plug-in code, LGPL or LGPL-compatible for the supporting library).
gstreamer1.0-plugins-ugly a set of plug-ins that have good quality and correct functionality, but distributing them might pose problems. The license on either the plug-ins or the supporting libraries might not be how we’d like. The code might be widely known to present patent problems.
gstreamer1.0-rtsp-server gst-rtsp-server is a library ion top of GStreamer for building an RTSP server.
harfbuzz HarfBuzz is an OpenType text shaping engine.
icu International Components for Unicode (ICU) is an open source project of mature C/C++ and Java libraries for Unicode support, software internationalization, and software globalization.
initscripts Initscripts provide the basic system startup initialization scripts for the system. These scripts include actions such as filesystem mounting, fsck, RTC manipulation and other actions routinely performed at system startup. In addition, the scripts are also used during system shutdown to reverse the actions performed at startup.
iptables iptables is a user-space application program that allows a system administrator to configure the tables[2] provided by the Linux kernel firewall (implemented as different Netfilter modules) and the chains and rules it stores.
iso-codes ISO language, territory, currency, script codes and their translations
jpeg This package contains C software to implement JPEG image encoding, decoding, and transcoding.
json-c JSON-C implements a reference counting object model that allows you to easily construct JSON objects in C, output them as JSON formatted strings and parse JSON formatted strings back into the C representation of JSON objects. It aims to conform to RFC 7159.
kbd This package contains keytable files and keyboard utilities compatible with kernel version 1.1.54 and later.
kmod kmod is a set of tools to handle common tasks with Linux kernel modules like insert, remove, list, check properties, resolve dependencies and aliases.
krb5 Kerberos is a network authentication protocol. It is designed to provide strong authentication for client/server applications by using secret-key cryptography.
lame High quality MP3 audio encoder
libarchive Multi-format archive and compression library
libcap The libcap package implements the user-space interfaces to the POSIX 1003.1e capabilities available in Linux kernels. These capabilities are a partitioning of the all powerful root privilege into a set of distinct privileges.
libcgroup libcgroup is a library that abstracts the control group file system in Linux. It comes with various command-line tools and configuration files.
libcheck unit testing framework for C code
libcroco Libcroco is a standalone css2 parsing and manipulation library. The parser provides a low level event driven SAC like api and a css object model like api. Libcroco provides a CSS2 selection engine and an experimental xml/css rendering engine.
libdaemon The libdaemon package is a lightweight C library that eases the writing of UNIX daemons.
libdbus-c++ dbus-c++ attempts to provide a C++ API for D-BUS. The library has a glib/gtk and an Ecore mainloop integration.
libdrm This is libdrm, a userspace library for accessing the DRM, direct rendering manager, on Linux, BSD and other operating systes that support the ioctl interface.
libevdev libevdev is a wrapper library for evdev devices. it moves the common tasks when dealing with evdev devices into a library and provides a library interface to the callers, thus avoiding erroneous ioctls, etc.
libexif The libexif is a library written in pure portable C, reads and writes EXIF metainformation from and to image files.
libffi A Portable Foreign Function Interface Library. The libffi library provides a portable, high level programming interface to various calling conventions. This allows a programmer to call any function specified by a call interface description at run-time.
libgcc The GNU Compiler Collection uses a special library called libgcc during code generation, which contains shared code that would be inefficient to duplicate every time as well as auxiliary helper routines and runtime support.
libgcc-initial gcc-initial
libgcrypt Libgcrypt is a general purpose cryptographic library originally based on code from GnuPG.
libgpg-error Libgpg-error is a small library that originally defined common error values for all GnuPG components.
libgudev This library provides GObject bindings for libudev. It was originally part of udev-extras, then udev, then systemd. It’s now a project on its own.
libinput libinput is a library to handle input devices in Wayland compositors and to provide a generic X.Org input driver. It provides device detection, device handling, input device event processing and abstraction so minimize the amount of custom input code compositors need to provide the common set of functionality that users expect.
libmad MAD is a high-quality MPEG audio decoder. It currently supports MPEG-1 and the MPEG-2 extension to lower sampling frequencies, as well as the de facto MPEG 2.5 format. All three audio layers — Layer I, Layer II, and Layer III (i.e. MP3) — are fully implemented.
libnl The libnl suite is a collection of libraries providing APIs to netlink protocol based Linux kernel interfaces. Netlink is a IPC mechanism primarly between the kernel and user space processes. It was designed to be a more flexible successor to ioctl to provide mainly networking related kernel configuration and monitoring interfaces.
libnss-mdns nss-mdns is a plugin for the GNU Name Service Switch (NSS) functionality of the GNU C Library (glibc) providing host name resolution via Multicast DNS (using Zeroconf, aka Apple Bonjour / Apple Rendezvous ), effectively allowing name resolution by common Unix/Linux programs in the ad-hoc mDNS domain .local.
libogg libogg is the bitstream and framing library for the Ogg project. It provides functions which are necessary to codec libraries like libvorbis.
liboil Liboil is a library of simple functions that are optimized for various CPUs. These functions are generally loops implementing simple algorithms, such as converting an array of N integers to floating-point numbers or multiplying and summing an array of N numbers. Such functions are candidates for significant optimization using various techniques, especially by using extended instructions provided by modern CPUs (Altivec, MMX, SSE, etc.).
libpam Linux-PAM is a free implementation of the following DCE-RFC from Sunsoft. Basically, it is a flexible mechanism for authenticating users.
libpcap Libpcap provides a portable framework for low-level network monitoring. Libpcap can provide network statistics collection, security monitoring and network debugging.
libpciaccess libpciaccess is a low level system library used to access PCI devices. It provides this functionality for X.Org and virtualization layers.
libpcre The PCRE library is a set of functions that implement regular expression pattern matching using the same syntax and semantics as Perl 5.
libpng libpng is the official PNG reference library. It supports almost all PNG features, is extensible, and has been extensively tested for over 20 years.
libproxy libproxy is a library that provides automatic proxy configuration management.
librsvg librsvg is a free software SVG rendering library written as part of the GNOME project, intended to be lightweight and portable.[2] The Linux command-line program rsvg uses the library to turn SVG files into raster images.
libsamplerate0 libsamplerate is a sample rate converter for audio.
libsdl This is the Simple DirectMedia Layer, a general API that provides low level access to audio, keyboard, mouse, joystick, 3D hardware via OpenGL, and 2D framebuffer across multiple platforms.
libsndfile1 libsndfile is a library of C routines for reading and writing files containing sampled audio data.
libsoup-2.4 libsoup is an HTTP client/server library for GNOME. It uses GObjects and the glib main loop, to integrate well with GNOME applications.
libtheora Theora is Xiph.Org’s first publicly released video codec, intended for use within the Foundation’s Ogg multimedia streaming system. Theora is derived directly from On2’s VP3 codec, adds new features while allow it a longer useful lifetime as an competitive codec.
libunwind The primary goal of this project is to define a portable and efficient C programming interface (API) to determine the call-chain of a program. The API additionally provides the means to manipulate the preserved (callee-saved) state of each call-frame and to resume execution at any point in the call-chain (non-local goto). The API supports both local (same-process) and remote (across-process) operation.
libusb1 libusb is a library for USB device access from Linux, Mac OS X, Windows and OpenBSD/NetBSD userspace.
libvorbis Ogg Vorbis is a fully open, non-proprietary, patent-and-royalty-free, general-purpose compressed audio format for mid to high quality (8kHz-48.0kHz, 16+ bit, polyphonic) audio and music at fixed and variable bitrates from 16 to 128 kbps/channel. This places Vorbis in the same competitive class as audio representations such as MPEG-4 (AAC), and similar to, but higher performance than MPEG-1/2 audio layer 3, MPEG-4 audio (TwinVQ), WMA and PAC.
libxkbcommon libxkbcommon is a keyboard keymap compiler and support library which processes a reduced subset of keymaps as defined by the XKB (X Keyboard Extension) specification. It also contains a module for handling Compose and dead keys.
libxml2 Libxml2 is the XML C parser and toolkit developed for the Gnome project
libzip libzip is an open source library for handling zip archives. It is written in portable C and can thus be used on multiple operating systems. It is based on zlib.
mtdev Multitouch Protocol Translation Library
ncurses The ncurses (new curses) library is a free software emulation of curses in System V Release 4.0 (SVr4), and more. It uses terminfo format, supports pads and color and multiple highlights and forms characters and function-key mapping, and has all the other SVr4-curses enhancements over BSD curses. SVr4 curses is better known today as X/Open Curses.
neon neon is an HTTP and WebDAV client library, with a C language API.
netbase This package provides the necessary infrastructure for basic TCP/IP based networking
nettle Nettle is a cryptographic library that is designed to fit easily in more or less any context: In crypto toolkits for object-oriented languages (C++, Python, Pike, …), in applications like LSH or GNUPG, or even in kernel space. In most contexts, you need more than the basic cryptographic algorithms, you also need some way to keep track of available algorithms, their properties and variants. You often have some algorithm selection process, often dictated by a protocol you want to implement.
nspr Netscape Portable Runtime (NSPR) provides a platform-neutral API for system level and libc-like functions. The API is used in the Mozilla clients, many of Red Hat’s and Sun’s server applications, and other software offerings.
nss Mozilla’s SSL and TLS implementation.
ofono oFono provides a mobile telephony (GSM/UMTS) application development framework that includes consistent, minimal, and easy to use complete APIs.
opencv Open Source Computer Vision Library. designed for computational efficiency and with a strong focus on real-time applications.
openssh OpenSSH is the premier connectivity tool for remote login with the SSH protocol. It encrypts all traffic to eliminate eavesdropping, connection hijacking, and other attacks. In addition, OpenSSH provides a large suite of secure tunneling capabilities, several authentication methods, and sophisticated configuration options.
openssl OpenSSL is an open source project that provides a robust, commercial-grade, and full-featured toolkit for the Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocols. It is also a general-purpose cryptography library.
orc Orc is a library and set of tools for compiling and executing very simple programs that operate on arrays of data. The ‘language’ is a generic assembly language that represents many of the features available in SIMD architectures, including saturated addition and subtraction, and many arithmetic operations.
ossp-uuid OSSP uuid is a ISO-C:1999 application programming interface (API) and corresponding command line interface (CLI) for the generation of DCE 1.1, ISO/IEC 11578:1996 and RFC 4122 compliant Universally Unique Identifier (UUID). It supports DCE 1.1 variant UUIDs of version 1 (time and node based), version 3 (name based, MD5), version 4 (random number based) and version 5 (name based, SHA-1).
pango Pango is a library for layout and rendering of text, with an emphasis on internationalization.
pixman Pixman is a low-level software library for pixel manipulation, providing features such as image compositing and trapezoid rasterization. Important users of pixman are the cairo graphics library and the X server.
popt This is the popt command line option parsing library.
ppp ppp (Paul’s PPP Package) is an open source package which implements the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) on Linux and Solaris systems.
python-dbus pydbus is a modern, pythonic D-Bus library built on top of PyGI and GDBus.
python-pygobject This archive contains bindings for the GLib, GObject and GIO, to be used in Python. It is a fairly complete set of bindings, it’s already rather useful, and is usable to write moderately complex programs.
readline The Readline library provides a set of functions for use by applications that allow users to edit command lines as they are typed in.
run-postinsts Runs postinstall scripts on first boot of the target device.
sbc SBC Audio Codec.
shadow Tools to change and administer password and group data.
shadow-securetty Provider of the machine specific securetty file.
shadow-sysroot Shadow utils requirements
signing-keys Make public keys of the signing keys available
speex Speex is an Open Source/Free Software patent-free audio compression format designed for speech.
speexdsp Speex audio processing library.
sqlite3 SQLite is a self-contained, high-reliability, embedded, full-featured, public-domain, SQL database engine. SQLite is the most used database engine in the world.
strace strace is a diagnostic, debugging and instructional userspace utility for Linux. It is used to monitor and tamper with interactions between processes and the Linux kernel, which include system calls, signal deliveries, and changes of process state.
systemd systemd is an init system used in Linux distributions to bootstrap the user space and manage all processes subsequently, instead of the UNIX System V or Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) init systems.
systemd-compat-units Enhances systemd compatilibity with existing SysVinit scripts.
systemd-serialgetty Serial terminal support for systemd
taglib TagLib is a library for reading and editing the meta-data of several popular audio formats. Currently it supports both ID3v1 and ID3v2 for MP3 files, Ogg Vorbis comments and ID3 tags and Vorbis comments in FLAC, MPC, Speex, WavPack, TrueAudio, WAV, AIFF, MP4 and ASF files.
time Tool that measures CPU resources. Time measures many of the CPU resources, such as time and memory, that other programs use.
tremor the Ogg Vorbis ‘Tremor’ integer playback codec
udev udev is a device manager for the Linux kernel.
udev-extraconf Extra machine specific configuration files for udev, specifically blacklist information.
util-linux util-linux is a standard package distributed by the Linux Kernel Organization for use as part of the Linux operating system.
util-macros M4 autotools macros used by various X.org programs.
va-intel Video Acceleration Add-ons for Intel BSPs
volatile-binds Volatile bind mount setup and configuration for read-only-rootfs
wayland Wayland is a protocol for a compositor to talk to its clients as well as a C library implementation of that protocol. The compositor can be a standalone display server running on Linux kernel modesetting and evdev input devices, an X application, or a wayland client itself.
wpa-supplicant wpa_supplicant is a WPA Supplicant for Linux, BSD, Mac OS X, and Windows with support for WPA and WPA2 (IEEE 802.11i / RSN). It is suitable for both desktop/laptop computers and embedded systems. Supplicant is the IEEE 802.1X/WPA component that is used in the client stations. It implements key negotiation with a WPA Authenticator and it controls the roaming and IEEE 802.11 authentication/association of the wlan driver.
xkeyboard-config The non-arch keyboard configuration database for X Window. The goal is to provide the consistent, well-structured, frequently released open source of X keyboard configuration data for X Window System implementations. The project is targeted to XKB-based systems.
xz XZ Utils provide a general-purpose data-compression library plus command-line tools.
zlib zlib is a general purpose data compression library.